Posts Tagged ‘Fibonacci’

Sequences 1, Tribonacci numbers

In this 3-part series of posts, we’ll discuss well-known sequences with the recurrence,

aP_{n-3} + bP_{n-2} + cP_{n-1} = P_n

where {a, b, ccan only be zero or unity.  Aside from the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers which is a = 0, there is the Narayana sequence with b = 0, the Padovan and Perrin with c = 0, and the tribonacci has a = b = c = 1.  All four cases may then share similar properties and one of which, interestingly enough, is that their limiting ratios, a root of the following equations,

\begin{aligned}    x^2 &=x+1\\    y^3 &= y^2+1\\    z^3 &= z+1\\    t^3 &= t^2+t+1\end{aligned}

can also be used to express \zeta(3),  or Apery’s constant.

I. Fibonacci and Lucas numbers

Given the two roots of,


with x_1 > x_2, the larger root being the golden ratio, we get the Lucas numbers L(n) and Fibonacci numbers F(n),

\begin{aligned}    L_n &= x_1^n+x_2^n = 2,1,3,4,7,11,18,29,\dots\\[2mm]    F_n &= \frac{x_1^n-x_2^n}{\sqrt{5}} = 0,1,1,2,\,3,\,5,\,8,\,13,\dots\end{aligned}

(The starting index is n = 0.)  Expanding powers of the golden ratio, then for n > 0,

\begin{aligned} & {x_1}^n = \Big(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\Big)^n = \frac{L_n+F_n\sqrt{5}}{2}\end{aligned}

We’ll see this can be generalized to powers of the tribonacci constant.

II. Tribonacci numbers

These are a generalization of the Fibonacci numbers, being,

t_n = t_{n-1}+t_{n-2}+t_{n-3}

Pin-Yen Lin has a nice paper involving these numbers.  First, define the following three sequences with this recurrence, but with different initial values,

\begin{aligned}S_n &=0,0,1,1,2,4,7,13,24,\dots\\U_n &=0,3,2,5,10,17,32,49,\dots\\V_n &=3,1,3,7,11,21,39,71,\dots \end{aligned}

(The starting index as usual is n = 0.)  The first and the third are recognized by the OEIS, with the first being the tribonacci numbers.  The limiting ratio for all three is the tribonacci constant, T, the real root of,



T = \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{3}(19+3\sqrt{33})^{1/3}+\frac{1}{3}(19-3\sqrt{33})^{1/3}

I’ve already written about the tribonacci constant before.  But I want to include how Lin found that powers of x can be expressed in terms of those three sequences. Define,

a =\sqrt[3]{19+3\sqrt{33}}

b =\sqrt[3]{19-3\sqrt{33}}

then, similar to the golden ratio,

T^n = \frac{1}{9}(a^2+b^2)\,S_n+\frac{1}{9}(a+b)\,U_n+\frac{1}{3}\,V_n

Hence, starting with = 1,

T = \frac{0}{9}(a^2+b^2)+\frac{3}{9}(a+b)+\frac{1}{3}

T^2 = \frac{1}{9}(a^2+b^2)+\frac{2}{9}(a+b)+\frac{3}{3}

T^3 = \frac{1}{9}(a^2+b^2)+\frac{5}{9}(a+b)+\frac{7}{3}

and so on.  Interesting, isn’t it, that powers of the tribonacci constant can be expressed in this manner.


There is a primality test regarding Lucas numbers: if n is a prime then L_n-1 is divisible by n.  For example L_5 = 11, minus 1, is divisible by 5.  However there are Lucas pseudoprimes, composite numbers that pass this test, with the smallest being n = 705.

The third tribonacci sequence can be formed analogously to the Lucas numbers.  Given the three roots x_1, x_2, x_3 of,


then, starting with n = 0,

V_n = x_1^n+x_2^n+x_3^n = 3,1,3,7,11,21,39,71,\dots

I notice that likewise, if n is prime, then V_n-1 is divisible by n.  But there are also tribonacci-like pseudoprimes.  The smallest is n = 182.  Steven Stadnicki was nice enough to compute the first 36.  It turns out they are relatively rarer, as there are only 21 less than 10^8, while there are  852 Lucas pseudoprimes in the same range.

Even powers of Fibonacci numbers

In a previous post, it was pointed out that powers of Fibonacci numbers also obey recurrence relations.  For example, it is the case that,

F_n^2-2F_{n+1}^2-2F_{n+2}^2+F_{n+3}^2 = 0

In general, for even kth powers, it takes k+2 consecutive Fibonacci numbers to sum up to zero.  However, using Mathematica’s LatticeReduce function which has an integer relations algorithm, I found that if reduced to k+1 terms, then it can still sum up to a constant, though it is now non-zero.  Thus,

\begin{aligned}    &F_n^2-3F_{n+1}^2+F_{n+2}^2 = (-1)^{n+1}\,2\\[1.5mm]    &F_n^4-4F_{n+1}^4-19F_{n+2}^4-4F_{n+3}^4+F_{n+4}^4 = 6\\[1.5mm]    &F_n^6-14F_{n+1}^6-90F_{n+2}^6+350F_{n+3}^6-90F_{n+4}^6-14F_{n+5}^6+F_{n+6}^6 = (-1)^n\, 80\\[1.5mm]    &F_n^8-33F_{n+1}^8-747F_{n+2}^8+3894F_{n+3}^8+16270F_{n+4}^8+3894F_{n+5}^8-747F_{n+6}^8\\&\;\;-33F_{n+7}^8+F_{n+8}^8 = 2520\end{aligned}

and so on, with k = 10 summing to (-1)^{n+1}\,226800.  Notice the formulas are palindromic, the same read forwards or backwards.

I was curious if this sequence of constants,

C(2p) = 2, 6, 80, 2520, 226800, \dots

had a generating function. Unfortunately, OEIS didn’t recognize it, so that question is unanswered for now.

Update, May 26, 2012:  Jim Cullen found a recurrence relation which is equivalent to the formula,

\begin{aligned}C(2p)&=\prod_{n=1}^p \frac{2(2n-1)(F(n))^2}{n}=\frac{(2p)!}{p!^2}\prod_{n=1}^p (F(n))^2\\&=2,6,80, 2520, 226800,53222400,\dots\end{aligned}

hence the next constant is(12) = 53222400.  The product of the first p Fibonacci numbers (n) is called a fibonorial.

Odd powers of Fibonacci numbers

The Fibonacci numbers F_n,

F_n = 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, \dots

obey the following recurrence relations,

\begin{aligned}&F_n-F_{n-1}-F_{n-2} = 0\\[1.5mm]&F_n^2-2F_{n-1}^2-2F_{n-2}^2+F_{n-3}^2 = 0\\[1.5mm]&F_n^3-3F_{n-1}^3-6F_{n-2}^3+3F_{n-3}^3+F_{n-4}^3 = 0\\[1.5mm]&F_n^4-5F_{n-1}^4-15F_{n-2}^4+15F_{n-3}^4+5F_{n-4}^4-F_{n-5}^4 = 0\\[1.5mm]&F_n^5-8F_{n-1}^5-40F_{n-2}^5+60F_{n-3}^5+40F_{n-4}^5-8F_{n-5}^5-F_{n-6}^5 = 0\end{aligned}

and so on.  As a number triangle, the coefficients are,

\begin{aligned}    &1;\; \bold{1, -1,-1}=0\\    &2;\; 1, -2, -2, \;1=0\\    &3;\; \bold{1, -3, -6, \;3, \;1}=0\\    &4;\; 1, -5, -15, 15, \;5, \;-1=0\\    &5;\; \bold{1, -8, -40, 60, 40, -8, -1}=0    \end{aligned}

See Ron Knott’s article on the fibonomials, so-called since the above is reminiscent of the binomial triangle.  However, I found another set of recurrence relations can be given as,

\begin{aligned}    &F_{n-1}^2-F_{n+1}^2 = -F_{2n}\\[1.5mm]    &F_{n-1}^3-F_{n}^3-F_{n+1}^3 = -F_{3n}\\[1.5mm]    &F_{n-2}^4+3F_{n-1}^4-3F_{n+1}^4-F_{n+2}^4 = -6F_{4n}\\[1.5mm]    &F_{n-2}^5-3F_{n-1}^5-6F_{n}^5+3F_{n+1}^5+F_{n+2}^5 = 6F_{5n}\\[1.5mm]    &F_{n-3}^6+4F_{n-2}^6-20F_{n-1}^6+20F_{n+1}^6-4F_{n+2}^6-F_{n+3}^6 = -120F_{6n}\\[1.5mm]    &F_{n-3}^7-8F_{n-2}^7-40F_{n-1}^7+60F_{n}^7+40F_{n+1}^7-8F_{n+2}^7-F_{n+3}^7 = -240F_{7n}\\[1.5mm]\end{aligned}

etc.  As a number triangle,

\begin{aligned}    &2;\; 1, -1 =-1\\    &3;\; \bold{1, -1,-1}=-1\\    &4;\; 1, \;\;\;3, -3, \;-1=-6\\    &5;\; \bold{1, -3, -6, \;3, \;\;1}\;=\;6\\    &6;\; 1, \;\;\;4, -20, 20, -4, -1=-120\\    &7;\; \bold{1, -8, -40, 60, 40, -8, -1}=-240    \end{aligned}

Compare the two triangles.  Notice how, for odd powers, the same coefficients appear, though moved up by one odd power.  I have no explanation for the phenomenon, other than the fact that I’ve seen several instances already of a “recycled” polynomial appearing in many contexts.