Posts Tagged ‘logarithm’

On Bailey and Crandall’s unusual sum

In page 20 of Bailey and Crandall’s On the Random Character of Constant Expansions, they give the wonderfully unusual sum,

\begin{aligned} x_1 = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{5^{5n}}\left(\frac{5}{5n+2}+\frac{1}{5n+3}\right)&=\frac{5^2}{2}\ln\left(\frac{781}{256}\left(\frac{57-5\sqrt{5}}{57+5\sqrt{5}}\right)^{\sqrt{5}}\right)\\ &= 2.833601\dots\end{aligned}

I didn’t think this was an isolated result so set about to find a generalization.  I found its counterpart,

\begin{aligned} x_2 = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{5^{5n}}\left(\frac{5^3}{5n+1}+\frac{1}{5n+4}\right)&=\frac{5^3}{2}\ln\left(\frac{781}{256}\left(\frac{57+5\sqrt{5}}{57-5\sqrt{5}}\right)^{\sqrt{5}}\right)\\ &= 125.256703\dots\end{aligned}

Note that,

(57+5\sqrt{5})(57-5\sqrt{5}) = 4(781) = 5^5-1

We can demystify the sum a bit by splitting the log function into parts. After some algebraic manipulation, we find that the first one becomes,

\begin{aligned}&x_1 = 25\Big(-5\ln(2)+\tfrac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\,\ln(57+5\sqrt{5})+\tfrac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\,\ln(57-5\sqrt{5})\Big)\end{aligned}

Thus it can be expressed in the form,

x_1 = r\ln\big({p_1}^{q_1}\,{p_2}^{q_2}\big)

where {p_1, p_2} are roots of the same equation, {q_1, q_2} are roots of another, and r is a rational.  The fact that,

2\cos(\pi/5) = \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}

was my clue that trigonometric functions may be involved.  Define,

c_k = -2\cos(2k\pi/p)

then for p = 5,

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{5^{5n}}\left(\tfrac{5}{5n+2}+\tfrac{1}{5n+3}\right) &= 5^2\ln\big((5c_1+26)^{c_2}(5c_2+26)^{c_1}/4^2\big)\\&=2.833601\dots\end{aligned}

p = 7

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{7^{7n}}\left(\tfrac{7}{7n+3}+\tfrac{1}{7n+4}\right) &= 7^3\ln\big((7c_1+50)^{c_3}(7c_2+50)^{c_1}(7c_3+50)^{c_2}/6^2\big)\\&=2.583334\dots\end{aligned}

p = 9

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{9^{9n}}\left(\tfrac{9}{9n+4}+\tfrac{1}{9n+5}\right) &= 9^4\ln\big((9c_1+82)^{c_4}(9c_2+82)^{c_1}(9c_3+82)^{c_3}(9c_4+82)^{c_2}/8^2\big)\\&=2.450000\dots\end{aligned}

with the constants {26, 50, 82} easily ascertained as {5^2+1, 7^2+1, 9^2+1}, and so on.  On the other hand, their counterparts are easier as the exponent c_k has the same subscript as the base.  Still defining,

c_k = -2\cos(2k\pi/p)

then for p = 5,

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{5^{5n}}\left(\tfrac{5^3}{5n+1}+\tfrac{1}{5n+4}\right) &= 5^3\ln\big((5c_1+26)^{c_1}(5c_2+26)^{c_2}/4^2\big)\\&=125.256703\dots\end{aligned}

p = 7

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{7^{7n}}\left(\tfrac{7^5}{7n+1}+\tfrac{1}{7n+6}\right) &= 7^5\ln\big((7c_1+50)^{c_1}(7c_2+50)^{c_2}(7c_3+50)^{c_3}/6^2\big)\\&=16807.169\dots\end{aligned}

p = 9

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{9^{9n}}\left(\tfrac{9^7}{9n+1}+\tfrac{1}{9n+8}\right) &= 9^7\ln\big((9c_1+82)^{c_1}(9c_2+82)^{c_2}(9c_3+82)^{c_3}(9c_4+82)^{c_4}/8^2\big)\\&\approx 4.7829\, {\rm x}\, 10^6\end{aligned}

etc.

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Roots of unity and binomial sums

Thanks to Robert Israel who answered my question in mathstackexchange, we have a generalization of the binomial sums of the previous post.  Interestingly, it turns out roots of unity are involved.  Given,

w = e^{2\pi\, {\rm i}/k}

where k is an even integer then,

\begin{aligned}&\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(2z)^{kn}}{\binom{kn}{kn/2}} = \frac{1}{1-z^k}+\frac{1}{k}\sum_{j=0}^{k-1}\frac{w^j z \arcsin(w^j z)}{(1-w^{2j}z^2)^{3/2}}\end{aligned}

for appropriate z such that the sum converges.  For the special case when,

2z =w^{1/2}=e^{\pi\,{\rm i}/k}

then,

\begin{aligned}&\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{\binom{kn}{kn/2}}=\frac{2^k}{2^k+1}+\frac{1}{k}\sum_{j=0}^{k-1}\frac{w^{j+1/2} \arcsin(\tfrac{1}{2}\,w^{j+1/2})}{2(1-\tfrac{1}{4}\,w^{2j+1})^{3/2}}\end{aligned}

Note that the terms are complex, but the sum is a real number so they must come in conjugate pairs. The arcsin of a complex root of unity can be given as,

\arcsin(\frac{1}{2}\,e^{\pi\,{\rm i}/k}) = -\arcsin\big(\frac{-a+b}{4}\big)+{\rm i}\ln\Big(\frac{a+b+\sqrt{-6+2ab}}{4}\Big)

where,

\begin{aligned}a &= \sqrt{5+4\cos(\pi/k)}\\ b &= \sqrt{5-4\cos(\pi/k)}\end{aligned}

With this transformation, it is now possible to have an expression all in real terms.  The case k = 2, 4 was given in the previous post.  For k = 6, we have the counterpart to Sprugnoli’s equality as,

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{\binom{6n}{3n}}&=\tfrac{64}{65}-\tfrac{2\sqrt{26}\,(1+7\sqrt{13})}{3\cdot13^2\,\sqrt{1+\sqrt{13}}}\arcsin\left(\tfrac{-\sqrt{6}}{2\sqrt{5+\sqrt{13}}}\right)\\&-\tfrac{\sqrt{26}\,(-1+7\sqrt{13})}{3\cdot13^2\,\sqrt{-1+\sqrt{13}}}\ln\left(\tfrac{\sqrt{7+2\sqrt{13}}\,+1}{\sqrt{7+2\sqrt{13}}\,-1}\right)-\tfrac{4\sqrt{5}}{3\cdot5^2}\ln\left(\tfrac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right) = 0.95106\dots\end{aligned}

Note that the prime factors of 65 are 5 and 13, and the square root of both appear above. However, for k = 8, while the expression contains the fraction \frac{256}{257} as expected, the argument of the log and arcsin do not factor over the quadratic extension \sqrt{257}, but rather only over \sqrt{2}.  Furthermore, the argument of the log for both k = 6, 8 are no longer simply expressible in terms of the Dedekind eta function, so observations for lower k do not generalize to higher ones.

Fermat primes and Binomial sums

We have,

\begin{aligned}    \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{\binom n{n/2}} &= \frac{4}{3}-\frac{4\pi\sqrt{3}}{27}\\[2.5mm]    \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{\binom {2n}n} &= \frac{4}{5} - \frac{4\sqrt{5}}{25}\ln\left(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right) \end{aligned}

For the next step, Renzo Sprugnoli gave the Ramanujan-like identity,

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{\binom{4n}{2n}}&=\frac{16}{17}+\frac{4\sqrt{34}\,(-2+\sqrt{17}\,)}{17^2\,\sqrt{-1+\sqrt{17}}}\arctan\left(\frac{\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{-1+\sqrt{17}}}\right)\\&-\frac{2\sqrt{34}\,(2+\sqrt{17}\,)}{17^2\,\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}} \ln\left(\frac{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}+\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}-\sqrt{2}}\right) = 0.846609\dots \end{aligned}

(The sign of the third term has been changed by this author.)  However, to make it more symmetrical, we can express the arctan in terms of the log function.  Since,

\begin{aligned}&\arctan(z) = \frac{i}{2}\ln\left(\frac{1-i z}{1+i z}\right)\end{aligned}

then,

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{\binom{4n}{2n}}&=\frac{16}{17}-\frac{2\sqrt{-34}\,(-2+\sqrt{17}\,)}{17^2\,\sqrt{-1+\sqrt{17}}}\ln\left(\frac{\sqrt{-1+\sqrt{17}}+\sqrt{-2}}{\sqrt{-1+\sqrt{17}}-\sqrt{-2}}\right)\\&-\frac{2\sqrt{34}\,(2+\sqrt{17}\,)}{17^2\,\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}} \ln\left(\frac{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}+\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}-\sqrt{2}}\right) =0.846609\dots \end{aligned}

In this manner, it reduces to the concise,

\begin{aligned}\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{\binom{4n}{2n}}&=\frac{16}{17}-\frac{x_1}{17}\ln(y_1)-\frac{x_2}{17}\ln(y_2)\end{aligned}

where, x_1,x_2 and y_1,y_2 are the appropriate roots of,

\begin{aligned}    &289x^4-799x^2-676 = 0\\    &y^4-5y^3+4y^2-5y+1 = 0\end{aligned}

I found that, curiously, the argument of the log can be expressed in terms of the Dedekind eta function, \eta(z).  Let,

\begin{aligned}    t_1 &=\frac{1+\sqrt{-5}}{2}\\    t_2 &= \frac{1+\sqrt{-17}}{2}\\    \zeta_{48} &=\exp(\pi i/24)\end{aligned}

then,

\begin{aligned}    &\frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{\zeta_{48}\, \eta(t_1)}{\eta(2t_1)}\right)^4 = \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\\    &\frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{\zeta_{48}\, \eta(t_2)}{\eta(2t_2)}\right)^4 = \frac{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}+\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}-\sqrt{2}}\end{aligned}

Is this coincidence?  Furthermore, using these as the argument of the polylogarithm,

\begin{aligned} &L_s(z) = \text{Li}_s (z) = \sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{z^k}{k^s}\end{aligned}

one can find a polylogarithm ladder to express Apery’s constant.  For example, getting the square root and reciprocal of y_2 so that z < 1,

\begin{aligned} z &= \sqrt{\frac{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}-\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{1+\sqrt{17}}+\sqrt{2}}} = 0.480533\dots\end{aligned}

then,

-12L_3(z)+75L_3(z^2)-68L_3(z^3)-33L_3(z^4)+43L_3(z^6)+12L_3(z^8)-7L_3(z^{12})+2\log^3(1/z) = 3\zeta(3)

A simpler one exists for the other argument. The next step, of course, is,

\begin{aligned}&\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{\binom{8n}{2n}}=\,?\end{aligned}

Since the first three Fermat primes 3, 5, 17 have already appeared, it should be interesting to conjecture if 257 will be next.

The silver ratio and a continued fraction for log(2)

Define the three sequences,

C_n = \sum_{k=0}^n {\binom n k} {\binom {n+k}k} = 1, 3, 13, 63, 321,\dots

B_n = \sum_{k=0}^n {\binom n k}^2 {\binom {n+k}k} = 1, 3, 19, 147, 1251,\dots

A_n = \sum_{k=0}^n {\binom n k}^2 {\binom {n+k}k}^2 = 1, 5, 73, 1445, 33001, \dots

The last two are Apery numbers and have been discussed previously. The first are the central Delannoy numbers which obeys the limit,

\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{C_{n+1}}{C_n} = \left(1+\sqrt{2}\right)^2 = 5.8284\dots

which is the square of the silver ratio.  (The ratios for the others have already been mentioned.)  These have the recurrence relations,

n C_n = 3(2n-1)C_{n-1}-(n-1)C_{n-2}

n^2 B_n = (11n^2-11n+3)B_{n-1}+(n-1)^2B_{n-2}

n^3 A_n = (34n^3-51n^2+27n-5)A_{n-1}-(n-1)^3A_{n-2}

To recall, the polynomials P(n) =11n^2-11n+3 and P(n) = 34n^3-51n^2+27n-5  generated numbers for the continued fractions of \zeta(2), \zeta(3), so I was curious if P(n) = 3(2n-1) could be used in an analogous manner.  It turns out, depending on what sign to use, it gives either \log(2) or \arctan(\frac{1}{3}),

\frac{1}{2}\log(2) = \cfrac{1}{v_1 - \cfrac{1^2}{v_2 - \cfrac{2^2}{v_3 - \cfrac{3^2}{v_4-\ddots}}}}

or,

\arctan(\frac{1}{3}) = \cfrac{1}{v_1 + \cfrac{1^2}{v_2 + \cfrac{2^2}{v_3 + \cfrac{3^2}{v_4 + \ddots}}}}

where, starting with n = 1,

v_n = 3(2n-1)

This can be partly demystified since one continued fraction for the natural logarithm, and arctan, is,

\frac{1}{2}\log\left(1+\frac{2x}{y}\right)= \cfrac{x}{1(x+y) - \cfrac{(1x)^2}{3(x+y) - \cfrac{(2x)^2}{5(x+y) - \cfrac{(3x)^2}{7(x+y) - \ddots}}}}

and,

\arctan(\frac{x}{z}) = \cfrac{x}{1z + \cfrac{(1x)^2}{3z + \cfrac{(2x)^2}{5z + \cfrac{(3x)^2}{7z + \ddots}}}}

Hence, if x+y = z, as with the case {x, y, z} = {1, 2, 3}, then there will be identical-looking continued fractions that differ only in the signs.  But it remains interesting how the recurrence relations of these three binomial sums are involved in the continued fractions of \log(2), \zeta(2), \zeta(3).  Later, we shall see there is a recurrence relation for the cfrac of \zeta(4) as well.